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During предвыборная кампания over the past decade, война компроматов or черный пиар were key ways to get better election results in Russia. Most often in Russia, this involved showing that a political opponent had been involved in dirty business deals or government corruption.
Here is a list of the most frequently used methods, according to zaks.ru magazine:
Внедрение своих управляемых людей в участковые избиркомы allows a number of rigging tricks. These types of махинации include вброс бюллетеней, голосование по чужому паспорту, and выдворение наблюдателей во время подсчета голосов.
In order to вбросить бюллетени, it is first necessary to compile списки “мертвых душ” —people who don’t live in the district, or people who are not going to vote in the elections. Sometimes these people are those who have actually died between the time that the voter lists were formed and the election was held. After that, these names end up on the voter list, and their ballots are filled out with votes for the required political party.
Blank бюллетени are always sent to election districts with a few extra copies. By the time the elections start, the exact amount of ballots should be заверены, and extra ballots should be уничтожены. Sometimes, officials will уничтожают не все чистые бюллетени and instead use some as additional votes. This can create problems as it can result in very high and suspicious voter turnouts, including those of more than 100%.
The extra ballots can be вброшены through various schemes, for example, перед опечатыванием урн для голосования or во время перевозки мешков с бланками и итоговыми протоколами.
Sometimes, давление на избирателей by руководители учреждений . For example, school principals might require teachers and other personnel, and sometimes even students’ parents to принять участие в выборах, and require teachers to голосовать за определенного кандидата. The military and state-owned corporations are also sometimes accused of using this trick. Russian media pointed out after the 2007 and 2011 Duma elections that the partients of psychiatriac wards across the country voted overwhelmingly for United Russia.
There is a trick called a хоровод, where the same person goes from one election area to another, obtaining a ballot from “their” член избиркома and голосует. In this way, the person отдает “свой голос” several times in different places. Generally, this requires that the член избиркома be involved as well as Russian voter lists are compiled based on passports and place of residence.
A similar trick is голосование по чужим паспортам. Here, people are paid or pressured to give their passport to someone on election day and the член избиркома is paid or pressured to not notice that the picture in the passport is not on of the person asking for a ballot.
Another rigging method is called карусель, where a voter получает бюллетень и выносит его за пределы участка. The people who paid the voter to take the ballot, then fill it out for a нужный кандидат. The next voter опускает этот бюллетень в урну; in turn, he takes his own ballot outside for the next person.
Finally, to doctor a vote count, one can also use откровенно неприкрытые и грубые махинации, such as simply приписки голосов нужным кандидатам during the подсчет голосов.